No. An item can be added to only one table. Keep in mind that tables are for your internal use only. They are not the same as the sections you may have created in your published catalog.
Tables allow you to group similar items together, so that you can manage them more efficiently. When you create a table for a group of similar items, you get to choose the fields that are relevant to that type of item. The fields you choose will then be available to you when you add items to that table.